Work and Machine

Machines can include large appliances, power tools, factory machines, or construction equipment. While all of those are machines, other simple tools such as hammer, screw, wheel, axle and more are also considered as a machine. They are defined as a simple machine.

A machine is known to make our work easier. By applying the force to the machine, the machine will apply force to an object. Applying force to the machine is called “Input Force”, and when a machine applies force to an object it is called “Output Force

Work = Force × Distance

Machines make work easier by increasing the amount of force that is applied, increasing the distance or changing the direction in which the force is applied. They do not increase the amount of work that is done, they just change how the work is done.

Simple machine

There are 6 simple machines:
  1. Lever
  2. Wedge
  3. Pulley
  4. Wheel and axle
  5. Inclined Plane 
  6. Screw

Compound machine

Image (School toolbox)

Compound machines are consist of one or two types of simple machines. The picture below shows an example of compound machines: 


Acid and Base | Lab Report

Acid and base are very crucial in our society. Without these two compounds, a variety of different product including paper, paint, detergent, soap, concrete wouldn’t exist.  

Even numerous types of foods contain acid and base. It is also very important for a living organism. One of the examples is many plants and fish needed a certain range of acid and base to grow and survive. 

While acid and base can be similar, there is a lot of differences between the two compounds. Both of these two compounds have the ability to conduct electricity. One of the differences in their properties. Acid taste sour when base tastes bitter. Acid produces positive hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolving in water. Whereas Base produces negative hydroxide ions (OH-). Another different is acid reacts with metal while the base doesn’t.

Different ranges of Acid and Base can be measured on a scale called the pH scale which ranges from 0 to 12. A pH value of less than 7 indicates an acid. The lower the number is, the stronger the acid. The higher the number is, the stronger the base

These are different cups of substances before we added the indicator

A certain compound can be an indicator that change color when acid comes in contact with them. In this experiment, red cabbage juice is used as an indicator to detect the PH level of acid and base. We can detect PH Level by observing the color of the substances after the indicator is added. In our experiment, we conducted an experiment with a different substance such as:

  1. Lime juice
  2. Vinegar
  3. Lime Soda
  4. Water
  5. Toothpaste
  6. Baking Soda
  7. Bleach
This picture shows the substances changes after adding the indicator.

A solution forms when one substance is dissolved by another. The substance that dissolves is called the solute. The substance that dissolves it is called the solvent. In the case, Lime juice, Vinegar, Lime Soda, Water, Toothpaste, Baking Soda, Bleach are solute. The cabbage represents the solvent. The solute is present in a lesser amount than the solvent. In another work, the cabbage is the indicator. After adding the indicator to the substance, we can see the obvious changes of the properties in each cups.

Black Snake Experiment | Lab Report

What is Carbon?

The Significance of Carbon. A compound found mainly in living things is known as an organic compound. Organic compounds make up the cells and other structures of organisms and carry out life processes. Carbon is the main element in organic compounds, so carbon is essential to life on Earth

The true method of learning is always an experiment which is a procedure when you learn anything with implementation. There are thousands of physical science experiment done by the scientist or students. One of the experiments I have done with my teacher and classmate in round 3 of these years is the carbon black snake experiment. To demonstrate with a clear explanation of how carbon black snake experiment work, we will walk through it clearly:

First, we have a bowl of sand to give protection when we are working with fire. Then place sugar and baking soda as a small volcano in the middle. After that soak everything wet with Ethanol(Simply known as alcohol). Lastly, set it on fire with matches.



After following all of those instructions you begin to see what look like a black snake push through sugar and baking soda,


To set the ingredients on fire, the heat break bond between sodium in baking soda and carbon in the sugar. The black snake you are viewing is called “Carbon ash”. You may be wondering why the carbon ash is pushing through the sugar and baking soda while not just settle like typical carbon ash. It is just because of the carbon dioxide released into the air from the burning carbon that pushes those ash to grow up into the sky. The color of the snake due to the sugar being burned by the heat because after burning carbon always turn to black and release carbon dioxide. 

Afterward, this particular experiment is giving more detail, knowledge, and experience about carbon to you. It includes how carbon bonded with sodium by heat and the carbon ash pushes up by carbon dioxide. You can test this experiment with the following instructions and ingredients.

Chemical Bonding | STEM

Chemical Bonding is the force of attraction between atoms and ion. It occurs when atoms happen to be transferring valence electrons which are electrons in the outer energy Level of an atom. Atoms are held together by Chemical Bonding. By sharing the electron, Atom has the ability to stay stable. Chemical Compound is composed or created of two or more separate elements. (H2O) Is an example of a chemical compound. They consist of ration fixed which is 2:1. (2;1) represents the two hydrogens that share electrons to oxygen. Furthermore, There are different types of bonding such as Ionic, covalent and metallic bonding.

Ionic Bonding is the force attraction that can hold together the positive and negative ions. It exists when a metallic element gives up the electron to an atom of nonmetal element.  When this happens, the atoms become oppositely charged ions. As an example, sodium(Na) atom donate one electron to the atom of chlorine(Cl). Now, these two elements have equal but opposite charge. As a result, they cling together by a strong ionic bond. Ionic bond forms only between metal and nonmetal elements. You can remember Ionic bonding very easily by thinking that metal wants to give up electron and nonmetal want to gain.     

Covalent bonding is the force of attraction that holds together a pair of electron. The bond is formed because they want to share together to become more stable. In some cases, electrons are not shared equally between the two atoms. This is called polar which is the condition when the electrons are not shared together equally. One of the examples is the polar covalent bonding of water. As a result, oxygen attracts more strongly than the hydrogen because they have attracts positively charged atom.

Wondering of an Atom

On the lesson that we’ve been discussing is the atom. The matter is made up of atom even if the atom is very small that we don’t have the ability to see it with our eyes. The center of the atom is called the nucleus. The nucleus is neutron and proton surround by the electron. The nucleus is made up of neutron and proton. Proton has charge well neutron has no charge. As a comparison, if an atom is the size of a stadium the nucleus would be the size of a peanut. It is very small. On the other hand, the smallest thing that has discovered so far is quark which is what created proton and neutron.

In general, I am amazed at how small atom is but there are still so many ingredients that made it up such as an electron, nucleus proton, neutron, and quark. I would love to have more opportunity to learn about science to allow myself to have more knowledge about it.

Image result for atom
This is an example of an atom that we use to learn more about an Atom